Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ/mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 signaling protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus

Yao Chung Chuang*, Tsu Kung Lin, Hsuan Ying Huang, Wen Neng Chang, Chia Wei Liou, Shang Der Chen, Alice Y.W. Chang, Samuel H.H. Chan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

56 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Status epilepticus induces subcellular changes that may lead to neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. However, the mechanism of seizure-induced neuronal cell death remains unclear. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in selected regions of the brain and is emerged as an endogenous neuroprotective molecule in many neurological disorders. We evaluated the neuroprotective role of UCP2 against seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death under experimental status epilepticus.Methods: In Sprague-Dawley rats, kainic acid (KA) was microinjected unilaterally into the hippocampal CA3 subfield to induce prolonged bilateral seizure activity. Oxidized protein level, translocation of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c between cytosol and mitochondria, and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) and UCP2 were examined in the hippocampal CA3 subfield following KA-induced status epilepticus. The effects of microinjection bilaterally into CA3 area of a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone or a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662 on UCP2 expression, induced superoxide anion (O2· -) production, oxidized protein level, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities, translocation of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c, and DNA fragmentation in bilateral CA3 subfields were examined.Results: Increased oxidized proteins and mitochondrial or cytosol translocation of Bax or cytochrome c in the hippocampal CA3 subfield was observed 3-48 h after experimental status epilepticus. Expression of PPARγ and UCP2 increased 12-48 h after KA-induced status epilepticus. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone increased UCP2 expression, reduced protein oxidation, O2· - overproduction and dysfunction of mitochondrial Complex I, hindered the translocation of Bax and cytochrome c, and reduced DNA fragmentation in the CA3 subfield. Pretreatment with GW9662 produced opposite effects.Conclusions: Activation of PPARγ upregulated mitochondrial UCP2 expression, which decreased overproduction of reactive oxygen species, improved mitochondrial Complex I dysfunction, inhibited mitochondrial translocation of Bax and prevented cytosolic release of cytochrome c by stabilizing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, leading to amelioration of apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following status epilepticus.

Original languageEnglish
Article number672
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - 31 07 2012

Keywords

  • Hippocampal neuronal cell death
  • Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2
  • Oxidative stress
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ
  • Status epilepticus

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