Physics-Inspired Optimization in the QUBO Framework: Key Concepts and Approaches

Lien Po Yu, Chin Fu Nien*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

1 Scopus citations


Quantum computing promises to have a tremendous advantage over its classical counterpart for solving computationally hard problems, yet remains in a relatively early stage for practical applications owing to the limited capabilities of today's quantum computers. The approach to the special purposes of quantum computers by exploiting the special-purpose physics-inspired or quantum-inspired computers is emerging as a novel alternative to its quantum counterpart in tackling hard problems in high-performance computing. Inspired by physics, the Ising machine - a type of special-purpose computer that implements or emulates physics or quantum effects of the Ising model to speed up finding solutions to optimization problems - has recently become an active research area in the field of combinatorial optimization. This paper is to address the key enabling software and hardware technology underlying physics-inspired optimization using Ising machines in the unified quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) framework for modeling and solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems, and with an aim to shed some light on the challenges and opportunities associated with the ever-growing landscape of this novel high-performance computing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2340016
Issue number4
StatePublished - 01 12 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 World Scientific Publishing Company.


  • Combinatorial optimization problem
  • Ising machine
  • digital annealer
  • quadratic unconstrained binary optimization
  • quantum annealer
  • quantum computing


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