Plasma folate level, urinary arsenic methylation profiles, and urothelial carcinoma susceptibility

Yung Kai Huang, Yeong Shiau Pu, Chi Jung Chung, Horng Sheng Shiue, Mo Hsiung Yang, Chien Jen Chen, Yu Mei Hsueh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

55 Scopus citations


To elucidate the influence of folate concentration on the association between urinary arsenic profiles and urothelial carcinoma (UC) risks in subjects without evident arsenic exposure, 177 UC cases and 488 controls were recruited between September 2002 and May 2004. Urinary arsenic species including inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) were determined by employing a high performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry procedure. After adjustment for suspected risk factors of UC, the higher indicators of urinary total arsenic levels, percentage of inorganic arsenic, percentage of MMAV, and primary methylation index were associated with increased risk of UC. On the other hand, the higher plasma folate levels, urinary percentage of DMAV and secondary methylation index were associated with decreased risk of UC. A dose-response relationship was shown between plasma folate levels or methylation indices of arsenic species and UC risk in the respective quartile strata. The plasma folate was found to interact with urinary arsenic profiles in affecting the UC risk. The results of this study may identify the susceptible subpopulations and provide insight into the carcinogenic mechanisms of arsenic even at low arsenic exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)929-938
Number of pages10
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 03 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Interaction
  • Plasma folate level
  • Urinary arsenic species
  • Urothelial carcinoma


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