Polycythemia vera as a presentation of renal angiomyolipoma: A case report

Ming Shyan Lin, Yu Shin Hung, Hsueh Hua Wu, Ming Chung Kuo, Tzu Fang Shiu, Cheng Keng Chuang, Lee Yung Shih, Pao Hsien Chu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: Angiomyolipoma is a common benign renal tumor composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and adipose tissue. It may be found incidentally during workup for suspected renal disease. Although angiomyolipoma may present as a palpable, tender renal mass with flank pain and gross or microscopic hematuria, many patients are asymptomatic. Erythrocytosis is an unusual presentation, and malignant transformation may be suspected. This report describes a rare case of a woman diagnosed with renal angiomyolipoma and polycythemia vera. The report discusses the differential diagnosis using erythropoietin, erythropoietin-receptor and Janus kinase 2. Case presentation. A 79-year-old Chinese woman was diagnosed with erythrocytosis according to World Health Organization criteria. An upper left renal pole angiomyolipoma was successfully ablated after multiple phlebotomy treatments. Red cell count immediately returned to normal, but gradually increased after 4 months. Polycythemia vera was finally diagnosed by positive mutation of Janus kinase 2 and negative erythropoietin protein expression. Her clinical symptoms improved with regular phlebotomy and hydroxyurea treatment. Conclusion. Concurrent occurence of angiomyolipoma and polycythemia vera is rare. Polycythemia vera can be easily missed. Polycythemia vera can be confirmed with high specificity and sensitivity by the acquired somatic mutation. Surgical intervention for this renal tumor should be avoided unless malignancy or renal cell carcinoma is suspected or to prevent spontaneous rupture of larger tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number90
JournalJournal of Medical Case Reports
StatePublished - 2009


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