Prediction and mediation analysis for treatment responses to combined cognitive and physical training for older adults

I. Ching Chuang, I. Chen Chen, Yih Ru Wu, Kuan-Yi Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Diminished cognitive and physical functions negatively affect the daily functions of individuals. Although combined cognitive and physical training prevents instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in older adults, no predictive model or mediation analysis of IADL after combined training exists. This study aims to employ prediction and mediation analysis to identify the predictors of IADL performance and to elucidate the mediators of the association between baseline global cognition and subsequent IADL performance following combined cognitive and physical training. This study involved 177 participants aged 60 years and older who underwent combined training. Cognitive function was measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Color Trails Test, Word List, and a dual task; physical function with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test; daily function with the Lawton IADL Scale. We conducted regression analyses to identify the predictors of IADL performance, and mediation analysis to examine whether DSST and TUG mediate the relationship between MoCA and IADL. The pre-intervention DSST and TUG were significant independent predictors of post-intervention IADL. The association between the pre-intervention MoCA and post-intervention IADL was mediated by pre-intervention DSST and TUG. This study highlighted the importance of measuring and improving processing speed and functional mobility before and during interventions to enhance IADL outcomes. Trial registration: NCT03619577, 23/07/2018; NCT04689776, 29/12/2020.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10571
Pages (from-to)10571
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 08 05 2024

Bibliographical note

© 2024. The Author(s).


  • Combined cognitive and physical training
  • Functional mobility
  • Instrumental activities of daily living
  • Mediator
  • Predictor
  • Processing speed
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Mediation Analysis
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Cognition/physiology
  • Exercise Therapy/methods


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