Regulation Mechanisms of Viral IRES-Driven Translation

Kuo Ming Lee, Chi Jene Chen, Shin Ru Shih*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

114 Scopus citations

Abstract

Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) can be found in the mRNA of many viruses as well as in cellular genes involved in the stress response, cell cycle, and apoptosis. IRES-mediated translation can occur when dominant cap-dependent translation is inhibited, and viruses can take advantage of this to subvert host translation machinery. In this review, we focus on the four major types of IRES identified in RNA viruses, and outline their distinct structural properties and requirements of translational factors. We further discuss auxiliary host factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), which are involved in the modulation of optimal IRES activity. Currently known strategies employed by viruses to harness ITAFs and regulate IRES activity are also highlighted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)546-561
Number of pages16
JournalTrends in Microbiology
Volume25
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 07 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • EV-A71
  • IRES-dependent translation
  • ITAFs
  • Picornaviruses

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