Relationship of concomitant anti-diabetic drug administration with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor-related ketosis

Cheng Wei Lin*, Shih Yuan Hung, I. Wen Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: The use of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) may be associated with ketoacidosis. Therefore, the associated risk factors should be identified. In particular, information regarding the effects of the co-administration of anti-diabetic drugs is lacking. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 68 consecutive patients with diabetes who were taking an SGLT2i and attending a single medical center. After a period of treatment (median 78 days), their circulating ketone concentrations were measured. The concomitant use of other anti-diabetic drugs was analyzed to identify independent risk factors associated with ketosis. Results: Twenty-five participants were taking empagliflozin, 23 were taking dapagliflozin, and 20 were taking canagliflozin. During the treatment period, no ketoacidotic events were recorded and their mean circulating ketone concentrations at the end of the study period were similar (0.3 mmol/L in the empagliflozin group, 0.26 mmol/L in the dapagliflozin group, and 0.25 mmol/L in the canagliflozin group). After adjustment for the use of anti-diabetic drugs, pioglitazone was found to be independently associated with a risk of high circulating ketone concentration (B value: 0.361, 95% confidence interval: 0.181–0.541). Conclusion: SGLT2i-associated ketoacidosis was found to be infrequent, but the concomitant use of pioglitazone was associated with a higher risk of ketosis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 03 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.


  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)
  • anti-diabetic drug
  • ketosis
  • peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
  • pioglitazone
  • β-hydroxybutyrate


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