Serum insufficiency induces rankl-independent osteoclast formation during developing ischemic onfh

Yi Min Hsiao, Chih Chien Hu, Mei Feng Chen, Chih Hsiang Chang, Yu Tien Chiu, Yuhan Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

4 Scopus citations


Blood supply interruption induces hypoxia and reduces serum provision to cause ischemia-induced osteonecrosis, including avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) is known to induce different expression patterns in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which have been extensively studied. However, the effects of serum insufficiency in nutrients, growth factors, and hormones on osteoblast and osteoclast activity in the damaged area and nearby regions remain poorly understood. In this study, the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast marker proteins was elucidated through in vitro and ex vivo studies. The results indicate that serum insufficiency accelerates the formation of monocyte-derived osteoclasts. The combined effect of serum insufficiency and hypoxia (mimicking ischemia) suppressed the activity of alkaline phosphatase and calcification in osteoblasts after the stimulation of osteogenic growth factors. Serum insufficiency increased the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and production of reactive oxygen species in monocyte-derived osteoclasts in the absence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand stimulation. The findings indicate that changes in the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast markers in necrotic bone extracts were similar to those observed during an in vitro study. These results also suggest that serum insufficiency may be involved in the regulation of osteoclast formation in patients with ONFH.

Original languageEnglish
Article number685
Issue number6
StatePublished - 06 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Ischemia
  • Osteoclast
  • Osteogenesis
  • Osteonecrosis
  • Serum insufficiency


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