Single-Step Primary Amine Synthesis on Proton Sensitive Nanofilms to Overcome Its Debye Length Limitations

Chia Ming Yang, Hui Ling Liu, Chih Ching Ho, Hsieh Fu Tsai, Nikhil Bhalla*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


The debye length is a measure of the distance over which the electric field of a charged particle decays in an electrolyte solution. If the binding of the analyte to the surface of the transducer is too far away from the surface, the electric field to the analyte may decay over a distance greater than the debye length thereby reducing the sensitivity of the measurement. In this context, this study has developed a simple one-step protein immobilization strategy to covalently attach proteins on the sensor surface. Our binding strategy, which uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ensures that the analyte is attached as close as possible to the transducer surface. This study evaluates our findings by comparing our strategy with silane chemistry and elucidating the debye length effects with colorimetric assays and field effect devices. Additionally, as a case study, we also evaluated the performance of our methodology for the detection of glucose oxidation by a field effect device. Overall, the developed immobilization strategy avoids the effects of the debye length and improves the performance of the biosensor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300080
JournalAdvanced Materials Interfaces
Issue number21
StatePublished - 26 07 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • amines
  • biosensors
  • debye-length
  • field-effect transistor
  • proteins


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