Splenic artery embolization changes the management of blunt splenic injury: an observational analysis of 680 patients graded by the revised 2018 AAST-OIS

Being Chuan Lin*, Cheng Hsien Wu, Yon Cheong Wong, Huan Wu Chen, Chen Ju Fu, Chen Chih Huang, Chen Te Wu, Chi Hsun Hsieh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

8 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the management of blunt splenic injury (BSI) and highlight the role of splenic artery embolization (SAE).

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with BSI over 15 years. Splenic injuries were graded by the 2018 revision of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS). Our hospital provide 24/7 in-house surgeries and 24/7 in-house interventional radiology facility. Patients with BSI who arrived hypotensive and were refractory to resuscitation required surgery and patients with vascular injury on abdominal computed tomography were considered for SAE.

RESULTS: In total, 680 patients with BSI, the number of patients who underwent nonoperative management with observation (NOM-obs), SAE, and surgery was 294, 234, and 152, respectively. The number of SAEs increased from 4 (8.3%) in 2001 to 23 (60.5%) in 2015 (p < 0.0001); conversely, the number of surgeries decreased from 21 (43.8%) in 2001 to 4 (10.5%) in 2015 (p = 0.001). The spleen-related mortality rate of NOM-obs, SAEs, and surgery was 0%, 0.4%, and 7.2%, respectively. In the SAE subgroup, according to the 2018 AAST-OIS, 234 patients were classified as grade II, n = 3; III, n = 21; IV, n = 111; and V, n = 99, respectively.; and compared with 1994 AST-OIS, 150 patients received a higher grade and the total number of grade IV and V injuries ranged from 96 (41.0%) to 210 (89.7%) (p < 0.0001). On angiography, 202 patients who demonstrated vascular injury and 187 achieved hemostasis after SAE with a 92.6% success rate. Six of the 15 patients failed to SAE preserved the spleen after second embolization with a 95.5% salvage rate.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the superiority of the 2018 AAST-OIS and support the role of SAE in changing the trend of management of BSI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-381
Number of pages11
JournalSurgical Endoscopy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 01 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).


  • Blunt splenic injury
  • Contrast extravasation
  • Pseudoaneurysm
  • Splenic artery embolization
  • Splenic salvage rate
  • Humans
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Splenic Artery/diagnostic imaging
  • Embolization, Therapeutic
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnostic imaging
  • Spleen/diagnostic imaging
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vascular System Injuries


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