Technological Advances in Radiotherapy

Belal Abousaida, Cheng En Hsieh, Bhanu P. Venkatesulu, Sunil Krishnan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Radiation therapy, a highly effective treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma, is underutilized due to challenges posed by radiosensitivity of the non-tumor-bearing liver, movement of the liver with respiration, and the poor definition of the tumor edge on many occasions. Nonetheless, technological advances have improved our ability to safely target tumors in the liver while sparing adjacent normal liver and gastrointestinal mucosa, thereby making increasing numbers of patients with liver tumors amenable to radiation therapy with curative intent. This transition from the era of two- and three-dimensional radiation therapy to the modern era of radiotherapy was catalyzed by the advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and charged particle therapy resulting in a resurgence of interest in radiation therapy for liver tumors. We outline the technological advances that are at the vanguard of this renewed interest and the associated improved outcomes seen with radiation therapy for liver tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRadiotherapy of Liver Cancer
PublisherSpringer Singapore
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9789811618154
ISBN (Print)9789811618147
StatePublished - 01 01 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.


  • Carbon ion
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Image-guided
  • Motion management
  • Proton
  • Radiation therapy
  • Stereotactic


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