The influence of relationship between distinct hand tools and universal design scales with screwdriver

Chih Fu Wu, Kai Chieh Lin, Chao Yang Yang, Shu Fen Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

3 Scopus citations


Universal Design (UD) evolves over time and with changes in industries. UD scales are utilized in different fields as universally universal scale and are generally utilized to post-event evaluations, which results in add-on features in practice. Screwdriver was chosen as an example by its category. According to user experience investigation and literature review, factor analysis was utilized to develop proper UD scale, and results indicated 7 principles which equitableness was still the primary. Functionality was essential for hand tools. Product operation conformed to user experience was the next which showed the importance of psychological concerns. UD evaluation items should be varied from one to another compared with general items. Product characters were critical in hand tools' evaluations. Experience and commercial value turned to be essential features in social development. The user evaluations were converted into design factors by Quantification Theory Type I for verification, and users' UD evaluations improved significantly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-43
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Design
Issue number4
StatePublished - 01 12 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Chinese Institute of Design. All right reserved.


  • Design process
  • Product design and development
  • Questionnaire design
  • Universal design


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