The structure of PGC Morale Scale in American and Japanese aged: A further note

Jersey Liang*, Joan Bennett, Hiroko Akiyama, Daisaku Maeda

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

9 Scopus citations


This study involves a further replication of cross-cultural comparison of the structure of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Using Japanese and American data sets, the present research replicates and extends the findings reported by Liang et al. (1987). In particular, the earlier findings that four PGCMS items behave differently in two cultures are replicated. The present study yields two additional observations. First, the invariance in the PGCMS can now be extended beyond the urban elderly residents studied by Liang et al. (1987) to the entire aged population in the U.S. and Japan. Second, this comparability is robust despite the elimination of correlated measurement errors from the earlier specifications and when several exogenous variables are controlled. Further, the impact of selected demographic variables on the PGCMS was evaluated. In addition, qualitative data from in-depth interviews provide further insights concerning the cultural differences in the expression of well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-68
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 01 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • comparative
  • cross-cultural
  • invariance
  • measurement model
  • well-being


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