Therapeutic Potential of Regorafenib in Cisplatin-Resistant Bladder Cancer with High Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Stemness Properties

Feng Che Kuan, Jhy Ming Li, Yun Ching Huang, Shun Fu Chang*, Chung Sheng Shi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Bladder cancer is becoming one of the most common malignancies across the world. Although treatment strategy has been continuously improved, which has led to cisplatin-based chemotherapy becoming the standard medication, cancer recurrence and metastasis still occur in a high proportion of patients because of drug resistance. The high efficacy of regorafenib, a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor, has been evidenced in treating a variety of advanced cancers. Hence, this study investigated whether regorafenib could also effectively antagonize the survival of cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Two types of cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells, T24R1 and T24R2, were isolated from T24 cisplatin-sensitive bladder cancer cells. These cells were characterized, and T24R1- and T24R2-xenografted tumor mice were created to examine the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib. T24R1 and T24R2 cells exhibited higher expression levels of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness markers compared to the T24 cells, and regorafenib could simultaneously inhibit the viability and the expression of EMT/stemness markers of both T24R1 and T24R2 cells. Moreover, regorafenib could efficiently arrest the cell cycle, promote apoptosis, and block the transmigration/migration capabilities of both types of cells. Finally, regorafenib could significantly antagonize the growth of T24R1- and T24R2-xenografted tumors in mice. These results demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of regorafenib in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancers. This study, thus, provides more insights into the mechanism of action of regorafenib and demonstrates its great potential in the future treatment of cisplatin-resistant advanced bladder cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17610
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number24
StatePublished - 12 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • bladder cancer
  • cisplatin resistance
  • epithelial–mesenchymal transition
  • regorafenib
  • stemness


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