Transcriptome analysis creates a new era of precision medicine for managing recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma

Chun Cheng Chiang, Hsuan Yeh, Siew Na Lim, Wey Ran Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence negatively impacts outcomes of patients treated with curative intent despite advances in surgical techniques and other locoregional liver-targeting therapies. Over the past few decades, the emergence of transcriptome analysis tools, including real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, microarrays, and RNA sequencing, has not only largely contributed to our knowledge about the pathogenesis of recurrent HCC but also led to the development of outcome prediction models based on differentially expressed gene signatures. In recent years, the single-cell RNA sequencing technique has revolutionized our ability to study the complicated crosstalk between cancer cells and the immune environment, which may benefit further investigations on the role of different immune cells in HCC recurrence and the identification of potential therapeutic targets. In the present article, we summarized the major findings yielded with these transcriptome methods within the framework of a causal model consisting of three domains: primary cancer cells; carcinogenic stimuli; and tumor microenvironment. We provided a comprehensive review of the insights that transcriptome analyses have provided into diagnostics, surveillance, and treatment of HCC recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-799
Number of pages20
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 07 02 2023

Bibliographical note

©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Microarrays
  • Precision medicine
  • RN sequencing
  • Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Single-cell RN sequencing
  • Tumor heterogeneity
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  • Humans
  • Transcriptome
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  • Precision Medicine


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