White blood cell count predicts all-cause, cardiovascular disease-cause and infection-cause one-year mortality of maintenance hemodialysis patients

Ching Wei Hsu, Ja-Liang Lin*, Dan Tzu Lin-Tan, Tzung Hai Yen, Kuan Hsing Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts predict coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in the general population. Chronic inflammation and malnutrition are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death in individuals with chronic kidney disease. In this study, we investigated the association between WBC count with inflammation, malnutrition, and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. A total of 959 MHD patients were stratified into four equal sized groups based on WBC count. Demographic, hematological, nutritional and inflammatory markers, and biochemical and dialysisrelated data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. All patients were followed for one year to investigate the risks for mortality. The mean WBC count was 6.4 ± 1.8 ¥ 103/μL (range: 2.3-16.3 ¥ 103/μL). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated a positive correlation betweenWBC count and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein > 3 mg/L). Forty-five patients (4.7%) died within the 1-year study period. Cox multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that total WBC count significantly predicts 1-year mortality due to all-cause (hazard ratio (HR): 1.228, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.095-1.378; P < 0.001), due to cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.242, 95% CI: 1.046-1.475; P = 0.013) and due to infection (HR: 1.252, 95% CI: 1.066-1.470;P = 0.006).These findings suggest that total WBC count should be measured in future studies that evaluate the clinical outcome of MHD patients and that dialysis patients with elevated WBC counts require further medical attention to reduce risks of mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)552-559
Number of pages8
JournalTherapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Volume14
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 12 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hemodialysis
  • High sensitivity C-reactive protein
  • Infection
  • Inflammation
  • Mortality
  • White blood cell

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