Cytokine changes during treatment of anti-Caspr2 encephalitis: A case report

Yi Chia Wei*, Chia Lun Wu, Wei Chieh Weng


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5 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Background: Cytokines are effective molecules of immune reactions. They work in inflammatory sites as well as circulate in the blood. Cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid have been suggested to be markers of autoimmune encephalitis and reflect disease progression. However, studies on blood cytokines in autoimmune encephalitis are scarce. We report a case presenting with serial changes in blood cytokine levels in a male patient with anti-contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2) encephalitis. Case presentation: A 61-year-old man without systemic disease presented with ataxia and speech disturbance 1 week. After admission, he further developed visual hallucinations, psychosis, and consciousness deterioration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and infection and tumor surveillances were negative. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of brain revealed frontal and occipital hypometabolism and anterior cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal hypermetabolism. Autoimmune studies confirmed Caspr2 antibodies in his blood. After receiving a diagnosis of anti-Caspr2 encephalitis, the patient received steroids, plasmapheresis, and zonisamide. He recovered well and was totally independent 6 months after disease onset. A cytokine profiler array kit was used to investigate neuroimmune mechanisms during the disease course. Several cytokines showed significant changes in plasma levels, such as B cell activating factor for B cell proliferation; thymus and activation-regulated chemokine for T cell chemoattraction; soluble CD40 ligand for Th2 cell mediation; C5/C5a for complement activation; brain-derived neurotrophic factor for neuronal survival response; and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, retinol binding protein, dickkopf-related protein, and epidermal growth factor for response to environmental provocation. The concentration of cytokines was verified using Luminex multiplexing assay. Conclusions: Due to their easy accessibility, blood cytokines are potential biomarkers of autoimmune encephalitis. Based on the investigating platform of this single case study, future larger scale studies are warranted.

期刊BMC Neurology
出版狀態已出版 - 13 08 2020


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